Thursday, May 21, 2020

The Supreme Court and Civil Rights Essay - 991 Words

Declared in the U.S. Constitution every American or should it be person, is guaranteed civil rights. Civil rights did not just consist of â€Å"freedom of speech and assembly,† but as well as â€Å"the right to vote, the right to equal protection under the law, and procedural guarantees in criminal and civil rights,† (Dawood). It was not until 1791, that the Bill of Rights was appended to the constitution, which helped clarify these rights to citizens. â€Å"Rights were eventually applied against actions of the state governments in a series of cases decide by the Supreme Court,† Dawood stated. In previous years (1790-1803), the Supreme Court had little say in decisions being made by government. As time went on the Supreme Court took on more†¦show more content†¦The only way any men were to be exempted from this clause was if his father or grandfather were to have voted previous to 1867. Being that African Americans’ ancestors were slaves, they wer e not able to be exempted thus they had to pass the tests, pay the tax, and pass any other requirements thrown at them. It was not until June 21, 1915 that the court declared it unlawful, leaving way for African Americans to vote. Another win for African Americans was in 1954, with the case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, where the Supreme Court called segregation unconstitutional and consequently banned it. This was only the ending of a 16 year struggle for the ruling out of segregation. The abolishment of segregation in public schools did not rely exclusively on this case, but as well as on other cases which contributed to this ban. The case of Brown v. Board of Education was said to have been divided into two cases known as Brown I and Brown II. The Brown I case, was the 1954 abolishment of segregation, in 1955 Brown II, â€Å"held local school districts responsible for implementing Brown I and ordered them to desegregate schools ‘with all deliberate spee d,’† (Unger). In previous years before the Brown cases, the National Association for the Advancement of Color People (NAACP), were accountable for the pro anti-segregation cases against school boards inShow MoreRelatedCivil Rights, Violation, Law, Race, And The Supreme Court Case901 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction When it comes to court cases, every case that is heard in court is heard for one reason or another. Some are disputes between two people, some are because of injury or murder and then you have some like this, is the result of racism. In this body of work, the Supreme Court Case surrounding Shelley v. Kraemer would be outlined. In addition to the outline of the case, the violations that took place will be determined and explained as well as the penalties associated with thisRead More The Role of the Supreme Court in the Civil Rights Movement Essay example1969 Words   |  8 PagesThe Supreme Court was important in both suppressing and aiding the Civil Rights Movement. However, decisions taken by the President, the continued white opposition and improvements in media communications also had an effect. Although all were important, the Civil Rights movement alone would have reached the same end without the help of the Supreme Court, and the devotion of its many members and leaders is the major factor in advancing Civil Rights. The Supreme Court is perhaps most well knownRead MoreThe Voting Rights Act Of 1965947 Words   |  4 PagesThe Supreme Court rulings led to a number of acts which helped the civil rights movement attain its goals. The first example is the Voting Rights Act of 1965. On January 23rd, 1964, the 24th amendment stopped the poll tax, which initially had been introduced in eleven southern states after reconstruction to make it difficult for poor blacks to vote. On August 10th, 1965, Congress passed the Voting Rights Act, making it easier for Southern blacks to register to vote. Anything that could limit theRead MoreExamining the View that the Supreme Court is an Effective Protector of Civil Liberties1041 Words   |  5 PagesExamining the View that the Supreme Court is an Effective Protector of Civil Liberties In 1789, the founders of the Constitution set out the power of the Supreme Court in Article III section 2, and, arguably, in the Supremacy clause in Article 6. These clauses gave the Supreme Court the power to protect the Constitution, and by doing so, the power to protect civil liberties. The strength of the Supreme Court is essential in protecting civil liberties that are protectedRead MoreCivil Rights Vs. Civil Liberties901 Words   |  4 PagesSeptember 2017 Civil Rights vs. Civil Liberties In America, today there is a lot of controversy over human’s rights. This is not true of just today, however, this fight for people s rights has been going on for ages. There are two basic types of rights. 2 There are Civil Rights and there are Civil Liberties. Civil Liberties are a broader topic, such as the right to vote or the right to bear arms, they can be directly from the Bill of Rights or the Constitution. While Civil Rights are more specificRead MoreCivil Rights And Civil Liberties1009 Words   |  5 Pages29 September 2017 Civil Liberties are basic freedoms and rights that are guaranteed to us by the government through the Constitution, Bill of Rights, and the Federal Law (â€Å"Civil Rights vs. Civil Liberties.†). Whether they are freedom of speech or a right to an attorney, these basic rights are a right to all of us. 1 Civil rights are the basic rights to be free from unequal treatment based on certain protected characteristics (race, gende r, disability, etc.) (â€Å"Civil Rights vs. Civil Liberties.†). WhetherRead MoreDirectives And Regulations Are Forms Of Secondary Eu Legislation1262 Words   |  6 Pageslike a national law without modifications (OU, 2017a, 2.2). b) The laws of human rights protects individuals from torture, slavery, unlawful punishment and arbitrary detention. Furthermore they make sure that people are treated equally under the laws. An example is the European Convention of Human Rights (ECHR). The convention has three categories of rights, absolute, qualified and limited (OU, 2017b, 2). Absolute rights cannot be legally breached under any circumstances. For example Article 4 of theRead MoreBrown Vs. Board Of Education1143 Words   |  5 Pageswas a landmark Supreme Court Case that overturned the separate but equal ideology established by the earlier Supreme Court Case Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896). The Plessy vs. Ferguson court case had a profound affect on the social interaction of racial groups in the late 19th to early 20th century causing tension between the two most prominent races within the United States, the Caucasians and the African Americans, which included Hispanics and other non-white citizens. The Supreme Court Case Brown vsRead MoreCivil Liberties And The Civil Rights902 Words   |  4 Pagescountry. This is where our civil sequences: Liberties and Rights, keep our country intact. 1 Both Civil Liberties and Rights are granted and defined in the Constitution. We must continue enforcing our civil sequences to maintain order for ourselves, our states, our government, and our nation. Civil Liberties focus on our basic freedoms as Americans and Civil Rights are concerned with rights regarding the treatment of an individual. 2 Definitely a Civil Liberty is ‘the basic right to be free from unequalRead MoreThe Brown Decision : A Catalyst For Change Or A Strategic Misstep?1157 Words   |  5 PagesDecision: A Catalyst for Change or a Strategic Misstep? Emily Gerard The Courts Public Policy Dr. Kevin Scott 13 July 2015 In The Hollow Hope, Gerald N. Rosenberg presents a thorough and incisive argument that the Supreme Court is constrained in its ability to affect change in public policy. To prove this point he argues that, â€Å"Before Congress and the executive branch acted, courts had virtually no direct effect on ending discrimination in the key fields of education

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Application Of Electronic Commerce ( E Commerce ) On Small...

UNIVERSITY OF CANBERRA COLLEGE Academic Writing and Research Skills (8733) Semester 2, 2014 Student Name : Oka Mardian Student ID : u3105425 Assessment Name : Essay Plan Date : 13 October 2014 Word Account : Implementation of electronic commerce (e-commerce) on Small Medium Enterprise (SME) In this globalization era, new businesses are emerging and developing very rapidly where competition between businesses are becoming more aggressive. This situation may impact on small business or familiar with small and medium enterprise (SME). In order to survive and stay competitive, SMEs implements a vary of approaches or strategies, such as by adopting internet-based or web based (e-commerce) in their business. Many studies argued that e-commerce is very useful for SME in order to face the competitive challenges in the global market. E-commerce is believed can influence performance. However, to adopt this application there are several obstacle that is faced by SMEs. Therefore, this essay would like to discuss how e-commerce provide benefit to SMEs and what the obstacles faced by SME in order to adopt this technology. SME is a small business, which is differs with big companies. The definition of SME in one country may be different between other countries. Each country has its own consideration to classify a business as SME. Gilaninia, Danesh, Amiri, Mousavian and Eskandarpour (2011) mentioned that the criteria of business that can be categorized as SME,Show MoreRelatedImplementation Of Electronic Commerce ( E Commerce ) On Small Medium Enterprise ( Sme )1292 Words   |  6 PagesImplementation of electronic commerce (e-commerce) on Small Medium Enterprise (SME) In this globalization era, new businesses are emerging and developing very rapidly where competition between businesses is becoming more aggressive. Raymond, Bergeron and Blili (2005) mentioned that todays’ market is more effective and efficient since the use of technology that has eliminated distance and time. This situation may impact on small business or known as Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) to compete withRead MoreSkills, Logistical Infrastructure, And Production1107 Words   |  5 Pagesskills, logistical infrastructure, and production. SMEs lack in time and skills to implement application to conduct electronic business. Suppliers, employers and customers need to be trained and educated for which many small businesses lack in time and financial capabilities. Dramatic increase in business can also be a threat to SME who cannot satisfy new customer demands. Face-to-face business between suppliers and customers is considered as the strong way of doing business by means of trust soRead MoreE Commerce And E Business Essay1437 Words   |  6 Pagesregarding business-to-business (B2B) e-commerce and business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce, because many people are purchasing travel products and services on the Internet (Casalo, Flavian, Guinaliu, 2010). Travel agencies should adopt e-commerce technology into business models to increase competitive advantages and to boost marketing activities (Abou-Shouk et al., 2013). Information and communications technology (ICT) and E-Commerce and E-Business applications have a large impact on businessesRead MoreE-Commerce Maturity Model (Compariosn of Four Models)4839 Words   |  20 PagesContents Introduction 2 Wrycza et al. s Research (2007) 3 Rao et al. s research (2003) 5 Prananto et al. s research (2004) 7 Alonso Mendo and Fitzgerald s research (2005) 9 The usefulness of using E-Commerce Maturity Model (ECMM) 11 Conclusion 14 Reference 14 Introduction In today s economy, organisations try to gain strategic and operational advantages over other competitors in their industry because of the rapid advance of technology and globalisation. CompaniesRead MoreE Commerce And Its Impact On Waste Management765 Words   |  4 Pagesready to embrace e-commerce as it could lead to serious security, legal and financial problems. Back in early 2000s those hurdles of e-commerce limited the confidence of companies in terms of Internet-based business integration (Prasad et al., 2000). The research by Quayle (2002) revealed that small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the UK would generally focus on waste management rather than adopting e-commerce. Moreover, some critics even predicted an imminent collapse of e-commerce (Wallace, 2000)Read MoreSkills and Learning Statement2152 Words   |  9 PagesAt present, the general trend of development of e-commerce enterprise organizational structure model specific performance of the grounds of the change of the traditional pyramid-shaped hierarchical organizational model to an open network structure. The design of the organizational structure of the e-commerce businesses related to the factors of management concepts, economic systems, management systems and other aspects of the reorganization enterprise in order to thoroughly change the traditional hierarchyRead MoreOnline Ordering System : A Project Proposal Essay2453 Words   |  10 Pagestopic as this research and contribute knowledge on how to make an online ordering system. Chapter II. Review of related literature and studies I.Related Literature Foreign Literature The extension of technology that integrates the electronic media in the buying and the selling process is known as the Ecommerce. Elton (2012) mentioned that the ecommerce website has deflated the dissimilarity of the world. Running an online business is much better than openingRead MoreImpact of E-Commerce in India5599 Words   |  23 PagesENABLING E-COMMERCE IN INDIA Amarjit Singh Department of Computer Science, HP University Shimla, India M.P.Thapliyal Department of Computer Science,HNB Garhwal University, Srinagar(Garhwal), Uttaranchal, India M.M.S.Rauthan Department of Computer Science,HNB Garhwal University, Srinagar(Garhwal), Uttaranchal, India D.K.Joshi Department of Computer Science, Amravati university, Amravati (Maharashtra), India Dine_joshi@rediffmailRead MoreBenifits of E-Business and Barriers5124 Words   |  21 PagesBarriers of e-Business Technology Adoption by SME suppliers Ali Abu Abid1, Md Mahbubur Rahim2, and Helana Scheepers3 1 2 faculty of Computer Sciences, Abha, Saudi Arabia Caulfield School of IT, Monash University, Australia 3 Swinburne University of Technology, Australia ____________________________________________________________ _____________________ Abstract E-business technologies present unique opportunities and challenges for businesses, and Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are noRead MoreThe SWOT Analysis of e-Commerce3288 Words   |  13 PagesTHE SWOT ANALYSIS OF E-COMMERCE 1.0: INTRODUCTION The sophisticated of technology in day by day is rapidly arising without us realize. Many people nowadays are excited to explore the application was provided into gadget such as mobile smartphone, tablet, Ipad, etc. Through this gadget most of people make this medium as a platform to do e-commerce business. To conduct e-commerce business on internet are now more easier and faster, has a few of medium from application that included in gadget can

Assignment Week 6 Sleep Deprivation, Disorders, and Drugs Free Essays

Any of us if not more than some have experienced some difficulty sleeping. This can happen because of a number of things: We worry about some sort of troubling thing to come or one that has passed, or there is the all too famous insomnia, which gets the best of us from time to time. There are many times in my life that I have had trouble sleeping, whether it was from one of my three children being sick, my husband being sick, me being sick, or my mind just running from here to there which happens quite frequently. We will write a custom essay sample on Assignment Week 6: Sleep Deprivation, Disorders, and Drugs or any similar topic only for you Order Now The last time I recall that I had not gotten enough sleep would have been when my middle child had to have oral surgery. I don’t really know if it was because she was going under and she hadn’t been before, if it was the fact that my little girl was going to have surgery for the first time. I tried for several hours to fall asleep, but my mind would not stay still. I finally decided to get up and try to doze off to the television, after that did not work I made some coffee and worked on my assignment. When it was time to get up my husband and my little girl I was exhausted, as if I was at work all day. I drove us to where we needed to go with no problem, but as we sat in the waiting room I dozed off for a few hours. As I woke it felt as if I had not slept as all, I was still exhausted. After the surgery was over and the care plan for her was set we left for home. I had got a huge cup of coffee from a convenience store, as I drank it I felt more tired. I slept for about 30 minutes on the way home, and when I got there I felt so awake. However, as I went in and settled down for a little bit, I felt more tired than I ever had. Unfortunately though I needed to take care of my other two children, which was a very hard task at hand, even with the help of their father. I was finally able to get to sleep that night however it was a rough start to the next day. When I am unable to get to sleep I tend to sleep more than normal, and as I wake I am dragging all day and feel as I need more sleep. As I read chapter 14 Sleep, Dreaming, and Circadian Rhythms, I am better understanding of why my body reacts the way it does if I get too much sleep or not enough sleep. When reading about the recuperation theories of sleep it made a lot of sense to me. I believe it is reasonable that we need to sleep in order for our bodies to revitalize its self, and that at some point if we were to develop a total sleep deprivation it could result in one’s death. We do know that we are in need of some sleep, however, we are still uncertain about how much sleep we much have. It is also know that many years ago people slept much more and today a person usually sleeps anywhere from seven to nine hours of sleep. According to the circadian theories of sleep, we possess an internal timing mechanism, called a circadian clock. I fully support the belief that we are programmed or have developed a habit of sleeping at night. I believe that we choose to rest and relax not only for our health, but also because we like it so much. I believe that we experience Microsleep from time to time as well. Mucrosleeps are short periods of sleep when we shut our eyes for a few seconds either while sitting or standing. I remember while I was working I had stayed up all night, when I went to work I was completely exhausted. I had to get something out of the walk in cooler, since it was a hot day out I sat on a crate and I dozed off for just a second, and ended up jerking awake. We do not know exactly how much sleep a human should sleep and exactly why it is necessary to need sleep. There are many types of sleep disorders, one in particular would be insomnia. There is insomnia that involves disorders of getting to sleep and staying asleep and hypersomnia, which includes disorders of sleeping too much. Causes that can influence insomnia are, for example, if a person is experiencing physical pain. This could influence a person when falling asleep or staying asleep. There are drugs (hypnotics) that can help a person to fall and stay asleep but they have negative effects. Prescribing benzodiazepines, like valium, have side effects as a person can develop a tolerance and might have to increase the dose of that specific drug. In addition, they are also addictive. Another insomnia disorder is called sleep apnea. A person with this disorder stops breathing during sleep, which makes him or her wake up and then go right away to sleep. This disorder is very common in older or overweight people. There is also nocturnal myoclonus (a body twitches and keeps a person awake) and restless legs syndrome. In hypersomnia, narcolepsy is the most well-known disorder. A person with this disorder complains about daytime sleepiness and falls asleep almost anywhere. Another symptom of narcolepsy is cataplexy, in which a person can lose muscle tone while being awake. This can make a person sit down suddenly or in the extreme, cause a person to drop down to the ground. Then there is sleep paralysis (unable to move when going to sleep or awakening) and hypnagogic hallucinations (dreaming while being awake). There are drugs such as stimulants and tricyclic antidepressants that might help; however, they are very addictive and can have side effects like not wanting to eat. There is also the hormone melatonin, a natural hormone produced in the brain, which is also manufactured commercially and is associated with sleeping, but the studies are still inconsistent and debatable. (Pinel, 2011) As we know we need some sort of sleep to function normally or on a normal basis, without it we could face some pretty severe consequences. If there are problems they make medication that can help with those problems, which will allow us to sleep. How to cite Assignment Week 6: Sleep Deprivation, Disorders, and Drugs, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

My Corolla free essay sample

My Corolla My Corolla I drive a Toyota Corolla. It is a small red car with little wheels and a tiny engine and the efficiency one would expect from Japan’s premier auto manufacturer. I’m pretty sure it could circumnavigate the globe without ever needing to stop to fill its 10-gallon fuel tank. An iconic car to fall in love with driving, epitomizing the American idea of happiness manifesting itself in the form of horsepower and steel and exhaust and mufflers and raw torque? Not really. An amazing vehicle? Yes. Then again, what do I know about cars? I probably like it because when I say the phrase â€Å"my Corolla,† I always kind of think it to the tune of â€Å"My Sharona.† Well, that’s a little awkward. Unfortunately, on one particular day, I was not behind the wheel of my Corolla. It was a bright and clear day. I was with my father, and I was at the helm of the aircraft-carrier size of American ingenuity that is the Chevy Uplander. We will write a custom essay sample on My Corolla or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page We were leaving the town of Ithaca, New York, after a weekend of visiting Ithaca College, a school I had been considering as a viable option for my higher education. Ithaca College sleeps high above its similarly named town on a hill, overlooking Lake Cayuga. It provides for some very nice vantage points. The entire area surrounding the town is rolling hills squiggled with highways and streams. It was early spring, and the deep New York snow had not entirely melted everywhere, but on this cool and sunny day, the branches of trees began to show their buds to the world, carefully revealing their delicate green slices to the meet the moist and cool air, like bejeweled rings on the hands of a knotty, knobby, wooden elderly woman. Fog was rising off of the many lakes of the area, giving a ghoulish mask to the sun that would roll in and out of its cloud cover. Everything was dead from the winter. Today’s forecast: fifty-five degrees and sunny. Everything was about to come alive again. My father and I didn’t speak much on the way home. He probably thought I was mad or a moody teenager or something. In reality, I was doing a lot of thinking. There was a lot to think about. Driving down the highway in a Chevy Uplander, my father stoking the coal-burning furnace to power the immense machine as I manned the helm, the car’s iron, square wheels crushed the smaller vehicles on the road. I prayed for mercy upon the poor souls around me as I navigated in and out of lanes, fiddling with the cruise control. Maybe it was the additional thirty-eight tons of steel, the enormous nose, the driver’s seat perched high above the road deck, or the impossibly uncomfortable upholstery, but everything just seemed unnecessarily difficult about this driving experience when compared to my Toyota Corolla. My interaction with this automobile seemed less symbiotic and more chaotic. During my brief scouting expedition to Ithaca College, I had a problem. A really big problem. This seemed like the college for me. Over the past few months, people had been constantly asking me what college I was going to and what I wanted to do when I got there. To be completely honest, there was no more frustrating topic to discuss. I honestly did not know, and I was getting tired of not knowing. â€Å"You’ll know. It will just feel right,† they would always say to me when we were done talking. So, everything should have been solved when I saw Ithaca, right? Earlier that semester, I had visited Asbury College, a small Christian school near Lexington, Kentucky, and I had a very similar feeling. The questioning persisted, as always. It grew more and more infuriating. I was frustrated with myself. Why couldn’t I pick? Why didn’t I know where I wanted to go to college? Why didn’t I know what would make me happy? Up until this point in my life, I had known almost every answer. School was easy: study, learn facts, answer questions, accomplish mission. Unfortunately, there was no study guide now. About halfway home from Ithaca, my father and I stopped to eat lunch. Pulling into a parking spot, I greatly underestimated the turning radius of Chevy’s magnificent crossover SUV-Minivan. I wound up about six feet to the left of the parking spot I had intended to pull into. â€Å"I hate this car. I miss my Corolla.† â€Å"There’s nothing wrong with it. It’s just different,† he said to me. One of my shortcomings when it comes to highway voyages is my lackluster skill in navigation. I need someone to tell me where to exit, even if I wrote the directions myself. I think it might be a byproduct of my perfectionist nature. I never want to make a mistake. I always want to know exactly where I’m going. I’m sure it’s easy to imagine my panic as I approached a confusing road sign. I’m pretty sure the transit authority of the state of Ohio actually accidentally hung up one of those games from Highlights, the Children’s magazine, where you try and follow an arrow through a mess of other arrows to guide the cheetah cub to its mother. No joke. â€Å"Dad,† I said panicked, as onramps and exits began to creep ever closer, â€Å"What do I do?† â€Å"Take the express lane.† â€Å"Thanks.† I got onto the express lane, but I noticed something about it. As it snaked across the Columbus area, in and out of dozens and dozens of orange construction pylons, sometimes squeezing traffic to a single lane, it never strayed far from the main highway from which I had just exited. Effectively, I could have stayed there much longer, with the same result. Perhaps I’m rambling, now. â€Å"Brevity is the soul of wit.† There was more than one way home from Ithaca, New York.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

The Four Surviving Maya Codices

The Four Surviving Maya Codices The Maya - a powerful pre-Colombian civilization who reached their cultural zenith around 600-800 A.D. before falling into steep decline - were literate and had books, written in a complex language including pictograms, glyphs, and phonetic representations. A Maya book is referred to as a codex (plural: codices). The codices were painted onto a paper made of bark from the fig tree and folded out like an accordion. Unfortunately, zealous Spanish priests destroyed most of these codices during the conquest and colonial era and today only four examples survive. The four surviving Maya codices mostly contain information about Maya astronomy, astrology, religion, rituals, and Gods. All four of the Maya books were created after the downfall of the Maya civilization, proving that some vestiges of culture remained after the great city-states of the Maya Classic Period were abandoned. The Dresden Codex The most complete of the surviving Maya codices, the Dresden Codex came to the Royal Library in Dresden in 1739 after being purchased from a private collector in Vienna. It was drawn by no fewer than eight different scribes and it is believed that it was created sometime between 1000 and 1200 A.D. during the Postclassic Maya period. This  codex deals primarily with astronomy: days, calendars, good days for rituals, planting, prophecies, etc. There is also a part which deals with sickness and medicine. There are also some astronomical charts plotting the movements of the Sun and Venus. The Paris Codex The Paris Codex, discovered in 1859 in a dusty corner of the Paris library, is not a complete codex, but fragments of eleven double-sided pages. It is believed to date from the late Classic or Postclassic era of Maya history. There is much information in the codex: it is about Maya ceremonies, astronomy (including constellations), dates, historical information and descriptions of Maya Gods and spirits. The Madrid Codex For some reason, the Madrid Codex was separated into two parts after it reached Europe, and for a while was considered two different codices: it was put back together in 1888. Relatively poorly drawn, the codex is probably from the late Postclassic Period (circa 1400 A.D.) but may be from even later. As many as nine different scribes worked on the document. It is mostly about astronomy, astrology, and divination. It is of great interest to historians, as it contains information on Maya Gods and the rituals associated with the Maya New Year. There is some information about the different days of the year and the Gods associated with each. There is also a section on basic Maya activities such as hunting and making pottery. The Grolier Codex Not discovered until 1965, the Grolier Codex consists of eleven battered pages of what was likely once a larger book. Like the others, it deals with astrology, specifically Venus and its movements. Its authenticity has been questioned, but most experts seem to think it’s genuine. Sources Redating the Madrid Codex, by Angela M.H. Schuster, 1999. McKillop, Heather. The Ancient Maya: New Perspectives. New York: Norton, 2004.

Sunday, March 1, 2020

The Meaning of s.t. or Subject To in Economics

The Meaning of s.t. or Subject To in Economics In economics, the letters s.t. are used as an abbreviation for the phrases subject to or such that in an equation. The letters s.t. proceed important constraints that the functions must follow. The letters s.t. are generally involved in stating relationships between economic functions using the mathematical functions themselves rather than articulating the same in prose. For example, one a common usage of s.t. in economics may appear  as follows: maxx f(x) s.t. g(x)0 The above expression, when stated in or translated into words, would read: The value of f(x) that is greatest among all those for which the argument x satisfies the constraint that g(x)0. In this example, f() and g() are fixed, possibly known, real-valued functions of x. The Relevance of s.t. in Economics The relevance of the use of the letters s.t. to mean subject to or such that in the study of economics stems from the importance of mathematics and mathematical equations. Economists are generally interested in discovering and examining different types of economic relationships and these relationships can be expressed through functions and mathematical equations. An economic function attempts to define observed relationships in mathematical terms. The function, then, is the mathematical description of the economic relationship in question and the equation is one way of looking at the relationship between concepts, which become the variables of the equation. The variables represent the concepts or items in a relationship that can be quantified, or represented by a number. For instance, two common variables in economic equations are  p  and  q, which generally refer to the price variable and quantity variable respectively. Economic functions  try to explain or describe one of the variables in terms of the other, thus describing one aspect of their relationship to one another. By describing these relationships through mathematics, they become quantifiable and, perhaps most importantly, testable. Though at times, economists prefer to use words to describe economic relationships or behaviors, mathematics has provided the basis for advanced economic theory and even the computer modeling that some modern economists now rely upon in their research. So the  abbreviation s.t. simply provides short-hand for the writing of these equations in place of the written or spoken word to describe the mathematical relationships.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Business data analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Business data analysis - Essay Example They try to elaborate the rate at which the stock values are found to be varying over time. Seasonal variations Seasonal variations have very important implications for the policies which define the functioning of a company. Rise and fall in stock prices often classify the boom and recessive periods of a company respectively. When stock prices rise, the companies generally are found to increase their employee wages and hire more employees as the production rises. They are generally predicted through figuring out the differences between the predicted trend line and the actual observations, for each individual period. Averaging over the differences throughout an entire year leads to the calculation of seasonal variations for each month in any year (Hargreaves, 1994, p. 154). Stock prices for Deutsche Bank are estimated to be reaching a peak during the fourth month of every year while it faces a recession during the tenth month of every year. Hence, the company might be regarded to be u ndergoing a period of boom during the second quarter of every year and a depression during the fourth quarter. However, when these seasonal variation statistics are compared with the actual monthly differences in the trend calculations and actual observations, the readings were found to be much different. The following graph depicts the comparative readings of differences between actual and trend observations. ... On the other hand, recession is actually experienced during the beginning of second quarter as against the seasonal variations calculated. However, it is not repeated for each and every year, as is found for the year 2002. In the year 2002, the actual seasonal variations are found to be coinciding with the calculated ones even though the readings do not match each other. The only factor which seems to correspond with each other is the direction of trend. If actual stock price values are being counted for, as the diagram alongside depicts, it would show that the correspondence between actual trend and estimated one is rarely found for the span of 10 years. In fact, the diagram suggests the absence of any hard-core seasonal fluctuation as such. The actual detrended line indicates the period between 2002 and 2004 as well as that between 2009 and 2010 to be under recession while that between 2006 and 2008 to be a period of boom. On the other hand, seasonal variation statistics show that regular cycle of booms and recessions are found to characterise every year. However, a point to be taken a note of in this regard is that even when the company, i.e., Deutsche Bank undergoes a whole period of boom or recession as such, there exists small fluctuations during the same. Hence, predictions about seasonal variations are likely to match during some years. Even when a company is experiencing a period of boom or recession, there could be ups and downs in business which symbolise seasonal variations, which actually is a short run phenomenon. However, there might also be another reason behind the lack of compatibility between the estimated trends and the actual adjusted closing price of the stocks of Deutsche Bank. As the diagram produced